Papacy - A Historical Perspective
Hadrian IV : 1154-1159 A.D.
169. Born in Lafiiley (England). Elected December 5, 1154 - died
September 1st, 1159.
He was a supporter of pontifical
At the meeting held in Sutri, Barbarossa refused to hold the
bridle of the Pope's
mule and he refused him the kiss of forgiveness.
Arnold of Brescia was burned according to an order given by
the Pope, who had his ashes
thrown in the Tiber; according to other sources, Frederick II rather
Hadrian ordered this terrible torture.
He was the first and the only English Pope.
Before dying, he recommended his old and poor mother to the
charity of the church of Canterbury.
He was buried in an ancient urn made of red granite, in the
dungeons of the Basilica of St. Peter.
In 1607, when the sepulchre was opened, he was found intact
and dressed with
His pontificate lasted almost 5 years.
Alexander III : 1159-1181 A.D.
170. Born in Siena. Elected September 20,1159 - died August 20,1181.
He excommunicated Barbarossa because
of his evil actions,
the Lombard League, and defeated him in Legnano with the famous
"Carroccio". He called the 11th Ecumenical Council. He reserved to the
Pope the right to canonisation.
He definitively decided through the bull
"Licet et Vitanda" issued in 1179, that the Pope had to be elected only
by cardinals, without any other influence from the clergy or the
and with a majority of at least two thirds (this last provision was
unchanged until Paul VI, who introduced the second ballot).
He was buried in San Giovanni in Laterano.
His pontificate lasted almost 22 years.
Lucius III : 1181-1185 A.D.
171. Born in Lucca. Elected in Velletri September 6, after one day
office vacancy, 1181 - died September 25, 1185.
He planned and promoted a statute
(November 4th, 1184),
which had to contain the rules
and functions for a more rapid repression than the public accusation
against heretics, and that lead to the creation of the Tribunal of the
Office (Paul III, 220). He was buried in the Cathedral of Verona.
His pontificate lasted almost 4 years and 2 months.
Urban III : 1185-1187 A.D.
172. Born in Milan. Elected December 1st, 1185 - died October 20,
He was elected in Verona and chose this
city as his pontifical
When he was a cardinal, he created the "Lombard League".
He opposed the abuse of Barbarossa and died of grief vvhen the
Urban III never came to Rome.
He is buried in the Cathedral of Ferrara.
His pontificate lasted about 1 year and 10 months.
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