Papacy - A Historical Perspective
A.D. (You may also want to read the seldom
mentioned activities of
Julius II and some other Popes)
221.Born in Rome. Elected February 22, 1550 - died March 23, 1555.
By reopening the Council of Trent he
continued to oppose Lutheran theories.
When Mary Tudor came to the throne of England, he sent a legate for the
reintroduction of the catholic cult. He celebrated the 10th Jubilee
In a Bull he established that two blood brothers could not be cardinals
at the same time.
The Protestant Reformation
was increasingly counting on followers : it reached Scotland and
vast areas of France;in this country, the Protestants were called
Thanks to special faculties granted by Julius III, the first real
university of Catholic studies was set up: it had already been founded
by St. Ignatio of Loyola and St. Francis Borgia; enriched with
donations and new buildings by Gregory XIII, it then took his name.
He was buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted 5 years
and 1 month.
Marcellus II : 1555
222. Born in Montepulciano. Elected April 10, 1555 - died May 1st 1555.
He was the last to maintain his
He endowed the curia with austerity and justice.
He worried about the Russian and Mongolian peoples.
Pierluigi of Palestrina composed the famous "Mass of Pope Marcellus".
In this regard, it must be said that Marcellus II wanted to eliminate
music from religious services, but Palestrina made him change his mind
thanks to the composition of this Mass.
The Pope, listening to the gravity of singing and the sweetness of
music, did not allow for music, but also had this genre of music played
in his Chapel.
His pontificate lasted only 22 days. He is buried in the Vatican
Paul IV : 1555-1559
223. Born in Naples. Elected May 26, 1555 - died August 18, 1559.
He promoted the reformation of customs.
He fought against the
Inquisition and Lutheran heresy.
He forced the Jews to live in
Paul IV brought to light the idea of a Vatican Typography, the
"Printing-office of the Roman people".
He was the first Pope to use the palanquin from the Vatican to San
He wrote a Bull in which he
threatened with the death penalty every man that depended economically
on a woman as well as any woman who accepted this situation.
He was buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva. His pontificate lasted 4 years
and 3 months.
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